Author(s): Alves-Pimenta Sofia, Colaço Bruno, Ginja Mário
Keywords:Elbow dysplasia, mediolateral view, elbow angle, canine osteoarthritis.
The mediolateral flexed, extended, or neutral elbow radiographic views are commonly used in clinical practice. However, there is currently no standardized methodology to accurately measure the elbow joint angle in mediolateral images that include only the elbow joint and surrounding tissues. The main aim of this work is to compare elbow joint angles obtained from mediolateral radiographs that include the complete arm and forearm of the dog, with angles measured in radiographs including only the elbow. Ninety mediolateral views of elbow joints were obtained from 50 canine thoracic limbs, with 39 joints <90º, 30 ≥90 - ≤120º and 21 >120º. Radiographs were centered on the elbow joint and include the shoulder and carpal joints. For each complete forelimb radiographic image, the elbow angle was measured using the methodology described in previous studies. Then, the digital images were cut to obtain only the joint and surrounding tissues, establishing a new set of anatomical landmarks to measure the joint angles: the lateral humeral epicondyle was used as an angular point, with the linking points being the nutritional orifice of the radius at the antebrachial interosseous space and the intersection point of the lateral supracondylar crest with the cranial humeral endosteum. There was a good agreement observed between the two elbow angle measurement methodologies. The intraclass correlation coefficient was statistically significant, with the lower limits of the 95% confidence interval (CI) at >0.75, and with zero being included in the standard error of the mean 95% confidence interval in the Bland-Altman test. This elbow angle measurement methodology based on anatomic landmarks next to the elbow joint is accurate and may be used for clinical and research purposes.
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