Author(s): Jelena Maletić, Ljiljana Spalević, Branislav Kureljušić, Ljubiša Veljović, Jelena Maksimović-Zorić, Milan Maletić, Vesna Milićević
Keywords:Fowl adenoviruses, Newcastle disease, vaccination, immunosuppression
Fowl adenovirus infections have a significant economic impact, especially in the production of broilers. It is considered the leading cause of three syndromes: adenoviral gizzard erosions and ulcerations, inclusion body hepatitis, and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome. A critical feature of this virus is its immunosuppressive effect, via suppressing humoral and cellular immunity. In this study, we examined the humoral immune response after administration of the Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler flocks with previously confirmed seroconversion against Fowl adenovirus. The study was conducted on 5 farms. A total of 220 chickens, five weeks of age, showing no clinical signs of the disease, were included in this study. The control group consisted of 20 chickens from a negative farm. Chickens were vaccinated with commercially available live NDV vaccines between 11 and 13 days of life. ELISA determined the presence of specific antibodies against FAdV in a total of 130/200 (65%) blood sera. Depending on the farm, seroprevalence ranged from 30-100%. The presence of specific antibodies against NDV was determined three weeks after vaccination using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. A positive hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer (≥ 16) was found in 41/200 (20.5%) sera, which was significantly less compared to the control farm, where a positive HI titer was found in 20/20 (100%) sera. The results of our study indicate the immunosuppressive effect of FAdV in subclinically infected birds and highlight the need for its diagnosis, prevention, and control.
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